“យួន បូរ៉េត”

“យួន បូរ៉េត” by YOUN BORETH https://link.medium.com/MzPMkoobi1

កឋិនទាននៅវត្តធម្មយុត្តតេជោ

វត្តធម្មយុត្តតេជោ ជាវត្តទើបនឹងបានកសាងកាលពីថ្ងៃទី07ខែមករាឆ្នាំ2019 ក្រោមការជ្រោមជ្រែងរបស់ព្រះតេជព្រះគុណ ទុន សុផល ព្រះមេគណ:ខេត្តព្រៃវែងនិងជាព្រះចៅអធិការវត្តនេះព្រមទាំងមានការចូលរួមពីអាជ្ញាធម៌គ្រប់លំដាប់និងពុទ្ធបរិស័ទគ្រប់ទិសទី។នៅថ្ងៃទី30ខែតុលាឆ្នាំ2019នេះ វត្តធម្មយុត្តតេជោ បានរៀបចំធ្វើបុណ្យកឋិនទានមហាសាមគ្គីមួយដើម្បីវេប្រគេនដល់ព្រះសង្ឃដែលគង់ចាំព្រះវស្សាអស់ត្រីមាស(3ខែ)។ថ្ងៃនេះពលរដ្ឋគ្រប់ទិសទីនិងអាជ្ញាធរគ្រប់លំដាប់បានចូលរួមយ៉ាងច្រើនកុះករ។

សារសំខាន់នៃការពិនិត្យសុខភាពប្រចាំឆ្នាំ

គ្រូពេទ្យជំនាញសុខភាព អះអាងថា ការពិនិត្យសុខភាពទៀងទាត់ប្រចាំឆ្នាំ មានសារៈសំខាន់ ទាំងសម្រាប់បុរសនិងស្ត្រី។ ការពិនិត្យសុខភាពប្រចាំឆ្នាំនេះ គឺដើម្បីបង្ការទប់ស្កាត់ជាមុន នូវប្រភេទជំងឺផ្សេងៗដែលអាចកើតមានក្នុងរាងកាយរបស់មនុស្សម្នាក់ៗ ជាជាងបណ្ដោយទុកឱ្យជំងឺវិវត្តកាន់តែធ្ងន់ធ្ងរ ទើបស្វែងរកការព្យាបាល ហើយដែលបញ្ហានេះ មានពេលខ្លះគឺយឺតពេល មិនអាចជួយសង្គ្រោះជីវិតបានឡើយ។

តើគ្រូពេទ្យអាចពិនិត្យមើលអ្វីខ្លះក្នុងរាងកាយរបស់យើងម្នាក់ៗ?

ទាំងបុរសនិងស្ត្រី នៅពេលទៅពិនិត្យសុខភាពប្រចាំឆ្នាំ គ្រូពេទ្យប្រចាំគ្រួសារ (Family Doctor) នឹងពិនិត្យសុខភាពរាងកាយ រួមមាន វាស់សម្ពាធឈាម ពិនិត្យលាមក ទឹកមូត្រឬទឹកនោម ស្ដាប់សង្វាក់បេះដូង លើសជាតិស្ករ ជាតិខ្លាញ់ ឬកូលេស្តេរ៉ុល (Cholesterol) រោគថ្លើម ជំងឺពុកឆ្អឹង រោគមហារីកផ្សេងៗ និងជំងឺកាមរោគជាដើម។ ការពិនិត្យសុខភាពនេះ អាស្រ័យទៅតាមវ័យ និងប្រវត្តិជំងឺរបស់ក្រុមគ្រួសារ រួមមានកើតជំងឺរលាកថ្លើម ទឹកនោមផ្អែម មហារីក និងជំងឺបេះដូងជាដើម។ បន្ថែមពីនេះ វេជ្ជបណ្ឌិតនឹងជជែកអំពីរបបចំណីអាហារ ការទទួលទានដំណេក និងការហាត់ប្រាណ ដើម្បីថែរក្សាសុខភាពឱ្យបានល្អប្រសើរ។

គ្រូពេទ្យជំនាញផ្នែកសុខភាពទូទៅ អ្នកស្រីវេជ្ជបណ្ឌិត គ្រីស្ទីណា លី (Christina LEE) ដែលបើកគ្លីនីកពិនិត្យជំងឺនៅទីក្រុងឡុងប៊ិច (Long Beach) មានប្រសាសន៍ប្រាប់អាស៊ីសេរីតាមទូរស័ព្ទ ពីរដ្ឋកាលីហ្វរនីញ៉ា (California) ថាការពិនិត្យសុខភាពប្រចាំឆ្នាំនេះមានសារៈសំខាន់ណាស់ ព្រោះនេះជាអាយុជីវិតរបស់យើងម្នាក់ៗ។ លោកស្រីថា ប្រការដែលស្ត្រីមកពិនិត្យសុខភាពទៀតទាត់នោះ គឺដើម្បីទប់ស្កាត់និងព្យាបាលទាន់ពេលវេលា ដូចជាជំងឺមហារីកសុដន់ និងមហារីកស្បូនជាដើម៖ «អ្នកខ្លះមានប្រវត្តិក្រុមគ្រួសារកើតជំងឺទឹកនោមផ្អែម មានខ្លាញ់ច្រើន គឺយើងពិនិត្យគាត់ញឹកញាប់ ជាងអ្នកដែលអត់មាន។ ដូចនេះយើងបូមឈាមមើលជាតិស្ករ មើលជាតិខ្លាញ់ ហើយអ្នកខ្លះខ្វះឈាមក្រហម ដោយសារធ្លាក់ឈាមច្រើនពេលមានរដូវ។ ស្ត្រីដែលអាយុ៤០ឆ្នាំឡើងទៅ គួរមកថតខ្លះដែរ ព្រោះខ្លះអាចមានមហារីកក្រោម៥០ឆ្នាំ ដូចនេះ ត្រូវពិនិត្យដែររកមើលជំមហារីកដោះ ស្បូននិងមហារីកពោះវៀនធំ»

គេហទំព័រសុខភាពមួយចំនួនឱ្យដឹងថា នៅពេលយើងគ្រប់ៗគ្នាមានវ័យកាន់តែចាស់ នោះនឹងចាប់ផ្ដើមមានជំងឺរ៉ាំរ៉ៃជាច្រើនផងដែរ ដូចជា ជំងឺទឹកនោមផ្អែម សម្ពាធឈាមខ្ពស់ ជាតិកូឡេស្ដេរ៉ូលឬខ្លាញ់ច្រើន មហារីកស្បូន សុដន់ និងមហារីកក្រពេញសម្រាប់បុរស ជាដើម។ ភាគច្រើនជំងឺទាំងនោះ មិនបង្ហាញរោគសញ្ញាអ្វីឡើយ នៅដំណាក់កាលដំបូងៗ ដូចនេះនៅពេលដែលលោកអ្នកចាប់ផ្ដើមមានអារម្មណ៍មិនស្រួលខ្លួន នោះវាអាចជាដំណាក់កាលធ្ងន់ធ្ងរនៃជំងឺទៅហើយ។ អាស្រ័យហេតុនេះ ការធ្វើតេស្តរកឃើញរោគសញ្ញាទាន់ពេលវេលា គ្រូពេទ្យជំនាញនឹងអាចជួយព្យាបាលជំងឺទាំងនោះ បានជាសះស្បើយ ឬក៏អាចទប់ស្កាត់កុំឱ្យវិវត្តធ្ងន់ធ្ងរនិងរាលដាលខ្លាំង។

អ្នកស្រីវេជ្ជបណ្ឌិត គ្រីស្ទីណា លី បន្តថា ជំងឺមហារីក ដូចជាមហារីកសុដន់ និងស្បូន ដែលជំងឺកាចសាហាវ ភាគច្រើនគឺជាជំងឺតពូជ ដែលអាចងាយរងគ្រោះចំពោះអ្នកដែលមានក្រុមគ្រួសារកើតជំងឺមហារីក៖ «ចាប់ផ្ដើមពិនិត្យថា តើមានមហារីកស្បូន ជាមហារីកមួយ យើងអាចព្យាបាលបាន បើសិនទើបចាប់ផ្ដើម ហើយវាមិនទាន់រាលដាល។ ជាមួយគ្នានេះ យើងក៏ពិនិត្យមើលសុដន់ដែរ ពីព្រោះស្ត្រីយើងអាចមានមហារីកសុដន់។ ស្ត្រីម្នាក់ក្នុងចំណោម ៩ ឬ១០នាក់ អាចមានមហារីកសុដន់ ហើយប្រសិនបើស្ត្រីមានប្រវត្តិក្រុមគ្រួសារមានមហារីកដោះ នោះគាត់អាចប្រថុយប្រថានខ្ពស់នៃការកើតជំងឺមហារីកនេះ»

លោកស្រីវេជ្ជបណ្ឌិតជំនាញរូបនេះ អះអាងបន្ថែមថា ចំពោះស្ត្រីគ្រប់វ័យ ដែលមានដៃគូរួមស្នេហ៍ច្រើន ក៏ត្រូវពិនិត្យមើលជំងឺកាមរោគផងដែរ ពីព្រោះជំងឺកាមរោគនេះ ប្រសិនបើមិនបានព្យាបាលទាន់ពេលវេលាទេនោះ វានឹងអាច បណ្ដាលឱ្យរលាកដៃស្បូន ឬក្នុងស្បូន៖ «ស្ត្រីដែលអាយុក្រោម ២៥ឆ្នាំ ច្រើនមានជំងឺឆ្លងតាមការរួមរ័ក។ ដូចនេះគាត់ត្រូវមកពិនិត្យមើល ព្រោះស្ត្រីខ្លះអត់មានរោគសញ្ញាទេ តែបុរសអាចមានរោគសញ្ញាខ្លះ ដូចជាបត់ជើងមកក្រហាយ មានខ្ទុះអីអ៊ីចឹង។ ស្ត្រីក្មេងទាំងនោះអាចមានជំងឺទាំងនោះ ហើយបើមិនព្យាបាលទេ អាចមានបញ្ហាថ្ងៃក្រោយ ទៅមានខ្ទុះក្នុងដៃស្បូន ឬក្នុងស្បូន វានាំឱ្យរលាក (Infection) ទៅគឺអត់អាចមានកូនបាន»

ចំពោះស្ត្រីដែលអាយុលើសពី៦៥ឆ្នាំទៅ ឬស្ត្រីដែលមានឆ្អឹងបាក់អាយុក្រោម ៥០ឆ្នាំ ឬក៏ស្ត្រីដែលអស់រដូវ គ្រូពេទ្យនឹងបញ្ជូនឱ្យទៅថតពិនិត្យមើលគុណភាពឆ្អឹង ឬដង់ស៊ីតេឆ្អឹង (Bone density) ក្រែងកើតជំងឺពុកឆ្អឹង (osteoporosis) ដែលជាហេតុនាំឱ្យឆ្អឹងផុយស្រួយ ងាយបាក់ ឬគ្រេច ប្រសិនបើលោកអ្នកដួល៖ «ស្ត្រីដែលអាយុលើស៦៥ឆ្នាំ ត្រូវពិនិត្យឆ្អឹង (Bone density) រកមើលថា វាផុយឬស្ដើង ត្រូវការញ៉ាំថ្នាំវីតាមីនឌី (Vitamin D) និងកាល់ស្យូម។ បន្ថែមទៀតបើឆ្អឹងពុក គ្រូពេទ្យនឹងផ្ដល់ថ្នាំពិសេស ដើម្បីជួយកុំឱ្យឆ្អឹងហ្នឹងផុយ ឬស្ដើង»

ការពិនិត្យសុខភាពប្រចាំឆ្នាំ គឺជាការពិនិត្យវេជ្ជសាស្ត្រពេញលេញ ដែលជាធម្មតាត្រូវការរយៈពេលតែពីរឬបីម៉ោងប៉ុណ្ណោះ។ ដូចនេះ លោកអ្នកគួរតែទៅពិនិត្យឱ្យបានទៀងទាត់រាល់ឆ្នាំ ពីព្រោះជំងឺភាគច្រើន ពុំបង្ហាញរោគសញ្ញានោះឡើយ។ ប្រសិនបើលោកអ្នក មិនទទួលបានការព្យាបាលទាន់ពេលវេលាទេនោះ វានឹងអាចបណ្ដាលឱ្យកើតជំងឺរ៉ាំរ៉ៃ ឧទាហរណ៍ ដូចជាជំងឺទឹកនោមផ្អែម អាចបណ្ដាលឱ្យពិការភ្នែក ខូចតម្រងនោម សម្ពាធឈាមខ្ពស់និងកូឡេស្តេរ៉ុលខ្ពស់ នាំឱ្យគាំងបេះដូង ដាច់សរសៃឈាមក្នុងខួរក្បាល ជាដើម។ ក្រោយលទ្ធផលនៃការធ្វើតេស្ត វេជ្ជបណ្ឌិតរបស់លោកអ្នកនឹងអាចធ្វើរោគវិនិច្ឆ័យ អំពីជំងឺណាមួយដែលលោកអ្នកអាចមាន និងណែនាំអំពីវិធីព្យាបាលដែលចាំបាច់។ វេជ្ជបណ្ឌិតក៏នឹងណែនាំអំពីវិធីដ៏ប្រសើរបំផុត ដើម្បីសម្រេចគោលដៅសុខភាពល្អ រួមមាន ទម្លាប់រស់នៅ របបអាហារប្រចាំថ្ងៃ និងការហាត់ប្រាណ ជាដើម៕

ការអប់រំជាសសរគ្រឹះរបស់ជាតិ

សាស្រ្តាចារ្យជនជាតិអាហ្វ្រិកម្នាក់បានសរសេរសារមួយថា៖
ចង់អោយជាតិសាសន៍មួយដួលរលំគេមិនបាច់ប្រើអាវុធបរមាណូ រឺក៏មីស៊ីលចំងាយឆ្ងាយទេ។
អ្វីដែលគេអាចធ្វើគឺ
1_បន្ថយគុណភាពការអប់រំតាមរយៈការអនុញ្ញាតអោយសិស្សលួចបន្លំពេលប្រលង។
2_ អ្នកជំងឺស្លាប់ក្នុងដៃគ្រូពេទ្យដែលប្រលងជាប់ដោយសារបន្លំ។
3_ អគាររលំក្នុងដៃវិស្វករដែលប្រលងជាប់ដោយសារបន្លំ។
4_ លុយបាត់ក្នុងដៃគណនេយ្យករដែលប្រលងជាប់ដោយសារបន្លំ។
5_ មនុស្សធម៌រលាយក្នុងដៃអ្នកប្រាជ្ញខាងសាសនាដែលប្រលងជាប់ដោយសារបន្លំ។
6_យុត្តិធម៌បាត់បង់ក្នុងដៃចៅក្រមដែលប្រលងជាប់ដោយសារបន្លំ។
7_អវិជ្ជាកើនពាសពេញខួរក្បាលក្មេងៗដែលរៀនជាមួយគ្រូដែលប្រលងជាប់ដោយសារបន្លំ។

ការរលំនៃការអប់រំជាការរលំរបស់ជាតិសាសន៍។

List of President of United State

For the 1999 C-SPAN series, see American Presidents: Life Portraits. For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation).
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States, indirectly elected to a four-year term by the people through the Electoral College. The officeholder leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Since the office was established in 1789, 44 men have served as president.

The first, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms in office (the only president to have done so) and is therefore counted as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States; the 45th and current president is Donald Trump (since January 20, 2017). There are currently four living former presidents. The most recent former president to die was George H. W. Bush on November 30, 2018.

The presidency of William Henry Harrison, who died 31 days after taking office in 1841, was the shortest in American history. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945. He is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.[1]

Of those who have served as the nation’s president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon, facing impeachment). John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency during a presidential term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler’s precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this provision when he selected Gerald Ford for the office following Spiro Agnew’s resignation in 1973. The following year, Ford became the second to do so when he chose Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him after he acceded to the presidency. As no mechanism existed for filling an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency prior to 1967, the office was left vacant until filled through the next ensuing presidential election.

Throughout most of its history, American politics has been dominated by political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, there were no parties. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, factions began rallying around dominant Washington Administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Greatly concerned about the capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never affiliated with a political party.[2]

Presidents
Edit

Unaffiliated (2) Federalist (1) Democratic-Republican (4) Democratic (15) Whig (4) Republican (19) National Union (2)
Presidency[a] President Prior office[b] Party[c] Election Vice President
1 April 30, 1789
[d]

March 4, 1797  George Washington
1732–1799
(Lived: 67 years)
[3][4][5] Commander-in-Chief
of the
Continental Army
(1775–1783) Unaffiliated
[2] 1788–89 John Adams
[e][f]
1792
2 March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801  John Adams
1735–1826
(Lived: 90 years)
[6][7][8] 1st
vice president of the United States
(1789–1797) Federalist 1796 Thomas Jefferson
[g]
3 March 4, 1801

March 4, 1809  Thomas Jefferson
1743–1826
(Lived: 83 years)
[9][10][11] 2nd
vice president of the United States
(1797–1801) Democratic-
Republican 1800 Aaron Burr
March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1805
1804 George Clinton
March 4, 1805 – March 4, 1809
4 March 4, 1809

March 4, 1817  James Madison
1751–1836
(Lived: 85 years)
[12][13][14] 5th
United States secretary of state
(1801–1809) Democratic-
Republican 1808 George Clinton
March 4, 1809 – April 20, 1812
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Clinton’s term)
1812 Elbridge Gerry
March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Gerry’s term)
5 March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825  James Monroe
1758–1831
(Lived: 73 years)
[15][16][17] 7th
United States secretary of state
(1811–1817) Democratic-
Republican 1816 Daniel D. Tompkins
1820
6 March 4, 1825

March 4, 1829  John Quincy Adams
1767–1848
(Lived: 80 years)
[18][19][20] 8th
United States secretary of state
(1817–1825) Democratic-
Republican 1824 John C. Calhoun
7 March 4, 1829

March 4, 1837  Andrew Jackson
1767–1845
(Lived: 78 years)
[21][22][23] U.S. senator from Tennessee
(1797–1798 & 1823–1825) Democratic 1828 John C. Calhoun
[h]
March 4, 1829 – December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Calhoun’s term)
1832 Martin Van Buren
March 4, 1833 – March 4, 1837
8 March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841  Martin Van Buren
1782–1862
(Lived: 79 years)
[24][25][26] 8th vice president of the United States
(1833–1837) Democratic 1836 Richard M. Johnson
9 March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
(Died in office)  William Henry Harrison
1773–1841
(Lived: 68 years)
[27][28][29] United States minister to Colombia
(1828–1829) Whig 1840 John Tyler
(Succeeded to presidency)
10 April 4, 1841
[i]

March 4, 1845  John Tyler
1790–1862
(Lived: 71 years)
[30][31][32] 10th
vice president of the United States
(1841) Whig
April 4, 1841 – September 13, 1841 Office vacant
Unaffiliated
September 13, 1841 – March 4, 1845
[j]
11 March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849  James K. Polk
1795–1849
(Lived: 53 years)
[33][34][35] 9th
governor of Tennessee
(1839–1841) Democratic 1844 George M. Dallas
12
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
(Died in office)  Zachary Taylor
1784–1850
(Lived: 65 years)
[36][37][38] Major general of the 1st Infantry Regiment
United States Army
(1846–1849)
(No prior elected office) Whig 1848 Millard Fillmore
(Succeeded to presidency)
13 July 9, 1850
[k]

March 4, 1853  Millard Fillmore
1800–1874
(Lived: 74 years)
[39][40][41] 12th
vice president of the United States
(1849–1850) Whig Office vacant
14 March 4, 1853

March 4, 1857  Franklin Pierce
1804–1869
(Lived: 64 years)
[42][43][44] Brigadier general of the 9th Infantry
United States Army
(1847–1848) Democratic 1852 William R. King
March 4 – April 18, 1853
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of King’s term)
15 March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861  James Buchanan
1791–1868
(Lived: 77 years)
[45][46][47] United States minister to the
Court of St James’s
(1853–1856) Democratic 1856 John C. Breckinridge
16 March 4, 1861

April 15, 1865
(Died in office)  Abraham Lincoln
1809–1865
(Lived: 56 years)
[48][49][50] U.S. representative for Illinois’s 7th District
(1847–1849) Republican
(National Union)
[l] 1860 Hannibal Hamlin
March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1865
1864 Andrew Johnson
March 4 – April 15, 1865
(Succeeded to presidency)
17 April 15, 1865

March 4, 1869  Andrew Johnson
1808–1875
(Lived: 66 years)
[51][52][53] 16th
vice president of the United States
(1865) National Union
April 15, 1865 – c. 1868 Office vacant
Democratic
c. 1868 – March 4, 1869
[m]
18
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1877  Ulysses S. Grant
1822–1885
(Lived: 63 years)
[54][55][56] Commanding general of the U.S. Army
(1864–1869)
(No prior elected office) Republican 1868 Schuyler Colfax
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1873
1872 Henry Wilson
March 4, 1873 – November 22, 1875
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Wilson’s term)
19 March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881  Rutherford B. Hayes
1822–1893
(Lived: 70 years)
[57][58][59] 29th & 32nd
governor of Ohio
(1868–1872 & 1876–1877) Republican 1876 William A. Wheeler
20 March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
(Died in office)  James A. Garfield
1831–1881
(Lived: 49 years)
[60][61][62] U.S. representative for Ohio’s 19th District
(1863–1881) Republican 1880 Chester A. Arthur
(Succeeded to presidency)
21 September 19, 1881
[n]

March 4, 1885  Chester A. Arthur
1829–1886
(Lived: 57 years)
[63][64][65] 20th
vice president of the United States
(1881) Republican Office vacant
22 March 4, 1885

March 4, 1889  Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[66][67][68] 28th
governor of New York
(1883–1885) Democratic 1884 Thomas A. Hendricks
March 4 – November 25, 1885
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hendricks’s term)
23 March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893  Benjamin Harrison
1833–1901
(Lived: 67 years)
[69][70][71] U.S. senator from Indiana
(1881–1887) Republican 1888 Levi P. Morton
24 March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897  Grover Cleveland
1837–1908
(Lived: 71 years)
[66][67][68] 22nd
president of the United States
(1885–1889) Democratic 1892 Adlai Stevenson
25 March 4, 1897

September 14, 1901
(Died in office)  William McKinley
1843–1901
(Lived: 58 years)
[72][73][74] 39th
governor of Ohio
(1892–1896) Republican 1896 Garret Hobart
March 4, 1897 – November 21, 1899
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Hobart’s term)
1900 Theodore Roosevelt
March 4 – September 14, 1901
(Succeeded to presidency)
26 September 14, 1901

March 4, 1909  Theodore Roosevelt
1858–1919
(Lived: 60 years)
[75][76][77] 25th
vice president of the United States
(1901) Republican Office vacant
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1905
1904 Charles W. Fairbanks
March 4, 1905 – March 4, 1909
27 March 4, 1909

March 4, 1913  William Howard Taft
1857–1930
(Lived: 72 years)
[78][79][80] 42nd
United States secretary of war
(1904–1908) Republican 1908 James S. Sherman
March 4, 1909 – October 30, 1912
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Sherman’s term)
28 March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921  Woodrow Wilson
1856–1924
(Lived: 67 years)
[81][82][83] 34th
governor of New Jersey
(1911–1913) Democratic 1912 Thomas R. Marshall
1916
29 March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
(Died in office)  Warren G. Harding
1865–1923
(Lived: 57 years)
[84][85][86] U.S. senator from Ohio
(1915–1921) Republican 1920 Calvin Coolidge
(Succeeded to presidency)
30 August 2, 1923
[o]

March 4, 1929  Calvin Coolidge
1872–1933
(Lived: 60 years)
[87][88][89] 29th
vice president of the United States
(1921–1923) Republican Office vacant
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1925
1924 Charles G. Dawes
March 4, 1925 – March 4, 1929
31
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933  Herbert Hoover
1874–1964
(Lived: 90 years)
[90][91][92] 3rd
United States secretary of commerce
(1921–1928)
(No prior elected office) Republican 1928 Charles Curtis
32 March 4, 1933

April 12, 1945
(Died in office)  Franklin D. Roosevelt
1882–1945
(Lived: 63 years)
[93][94][95] 44th
governor of New York
(1929–1932) Democratic 1932 John N. Garner
March 4, 1933 – January 20, 1941
[p]
1936
1940 Henry A. Wallace
January 20, 1941 – January 20, 1945
1944 Harry S. Truman
January 20 – April 12, 1945
(Succeeded to presidency)
33 April 12, 1945

January 20, 1953  Harry S. Truman
1884–1972
(Lived: 88 years)
[96][97][98] 34th
vice president of the United States
(1945) Democratic Office vacant
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1949
1948 Alben W. Barkley
January 20, 1949 – January 20, 1953
34
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961  Dwight D. Eisenhower
1890–1969
(Lived: 78 years)
[99][100][101] Supreme Allied Commander Europe
(1949–1952)
(No prior elected office) Republican 1952 Richard Nixon
1956
35 January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
(Died in office)  John F. Kennedy
1917–1963
(Lived: 46 years)
[102][103][104] U.S. senator from Massachusetts
(1953–1960) Democratic 1960 Lyndon B. Johnson
(Succeeded to presidency)
36 November 22, 1963

January 20, 1969  Lyndon B. Johnson
1908–1973
(Lived: 64 years)
[105][106][107] 37th
vice president of the United States
(1961–1963) Democratic Office vacant
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1965
1964 Hubert Humphrey
January 20, 1965 – January 20, 1969
37 January 20, 1969

August 9, 1974
(Resigned from office)  Richard Nixon
1913–1994
(Lived: 81 years)
[108][109][110] 36th
vice president of the United States
(1953–1961) Republican 1968 Spiro Agnew
January 20, 1969 – October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)
1972
Office vacant
October 10 – December 6, 1973
Gerald Ford
December 6, 1973 – August 9, 1974
(Succeeded to presidency)
38 August 9, 1974

January 20, 1977  Gerald Ford
1913–2006
(Lived: 93 years)
[111][112][113] 40th
vice president of the United States
(1973–1974) Republican Office vacant
August 9 – December 19, 1974
Nelson Rockefeller
December 19, 1974 – January 20, 1977
39 January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981  Jimmy Carter
Born 1924
(94 years old)
[114][115][116] 76th
governor of Georgia
(1971–1975) Democratic 1976 Walter Mondale
40 January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989  Ronald Reagan
1911–2004
(Lived: 93 years)
[117][118][119] 33rd
governor of California
(1967–1975) Republican 1980 George H. W. Bush
1984
41 January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993  George H. W. Bush
1924–2018
(Lived: 94 years)
[120][121][122] 43rd
vice president of the United States
(1981–1989) Republican 1988 Dan Quayle
42 January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001  Bill Clinton
Born 1946
(72 years old)
[123][124][125] 40th & 42nd
governor of Arkansas
(1979–1981 & 1983–1992) Democratic 1992 Al Gore
1996
43 January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009  George W. Bush
Born 1946
(73 years old)
[126][127] 46th
governor of Texas
(1995–2000) Republican 2000 Dick Cheney
2004
44 January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017  Barack Obama
Born 1961
(58 years old)
[128][129] U.S. senator from Illinois
(2005–2008) Democratic 2008 Joe Biden
2012
45 January 20, 2017

Incumbent  Donald Trump
Born 1946
(73 years old)
[130][131] Chairman of
The Trump Organization
(1971–2017)
(No prior elected office) Republican 2016 Mike Pence
Subsequent public office
Edit

Three presidents held another U.S. federal office after serving as president.

President Presidency[a] Subsequent service
John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 U.S. representative from Massachusetts (1831–1848)
Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. senator from Tennessee (1875)
William Howard Taft 27 1909–1913 10th chief justice of the United States (1921–1930)
Two presidents campaigned unsuccessfully for other U.S. state or federal elective offices after serving as president.

President Presidency[a] Office sought unsuccessfully
John Quincy Adams 6 1825–1829 Governor of Massachusetts (1833)
Andrew Johnson 17 1865–1869 U.S. senator from Tennessee (1870)
U.S. representative from Tennessee (1872)
Many presidents have campaigned unsuccessfully for another term as president. Five did so after a gap of at least one term since they served:

President Presidency[a] Office sought unsuccessfully
Martin Van Buren 8 1837–1841 President of the United States (1844)
President of the United States (1848)
Millard Fillmore 13 1850–1853 President of the United States (1856)
Ulysses S. Grant 18 1869–1877 President of the United States (1880)
Theodore Roosevelt 26 1901–1909 President of the United States (1912)
Herbert Hoover 31 1929–1933 President of the United States (1940)
Additionally, one former president, John Tyler, served in the government of the Confederate States during the American Civil War. Tyler served in the Provisional Confederate Congress from 1861 to 1862. He was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives in November 1861, but died before he could take his seat.